J Fam Econ Iss (2009) 30: 372–385
DOI 10. 1007/s10834-009-9169-4
Spousal Functions on Motivations for Entrepreneurship: A Qualitative Study in New Zealand
Published online: 26 September 2009
Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009
Summary Little is known about the role the spouse performs
in an entrepreneur's motivations for entrepreneurship. A
gender relative qualitative research is provided, based on
interviews with sixty-eight entrepreneurs (45 men and 23 women)
in New Zealand. A continuum of spousal support is
described—those whose spouses are co-founders, supportive husband and wife, and unsupportive/ambivalent spouses. Conclusions show that women and men tend to have several
expectations with their spouse when contemplating beginning a
business. A woman wants her hubby for business
advice, for support, and reassurance and looks at the
effects that starting a business might have on her spouse. A
man tends to assume support is forth-coming, and some guys
start businesses without precise spousal support. Contributions to theories of family organization are made. Keywords Co-founders Á Entrepreneurs Á Gender Á
Motivations Á Spouse Á Support
While the along with the business have been completely studied while two
separate systems, lately more awareness has been placed
on analyzing the importance with the interface between your
business as well as the family (Duncan et 's. 2000; Heck et 's.
2008; Hennon et ing. 1998; Masuo et approach. 2001). In fact , Dew
(2008) found family based businesses have featured strongly being a
theme in the review of exploration in the Journal of Family members
and Monetary issues in the last 20 years. This kind of study
T. Kirkwood (& )
Department of Supervision, School of Business,
School of Otago, Dunedin, Fresh Zealand
email: jodyanne. [email protected] ac. nz
centers on the position that business founders' husband and wife play with regards to their inspirations for entrepreneurship. In this
examine the term spouse is used while an umbrella term pertaining to wife,
hubby, partner, or maybe a de-facto partner. Spouses had been
the subject of research in relatives research; including, financial risk taking patterns (Jianakoplos and Bernasek 2008),
work-family equilibrium (Kirkwood and Tootell 2008), satisfaction with leisure time (Garcia et ing. 2007), add-on and control (Stewart and Danes 2001) and tensions, conflict and
satisfaction (Amarapurkar and Danes 2005). Similar
areas of research focused on the role of spouses inside
home, particularly in relation to period use studies regarding household management and housework duties (Winkler and
Ireland 2009). With respect to the entrepreneurship literature, the role of spouses upon motivations pertaining to entrepreneurship has received scant empirical attention (Maccauley 2006; Marshack 1994; Muske and Fitzgerald 2006; Poza
and Messer 2001). Even more empirical research has been called
for about just how different types of family involvement at the
start-up level influence the founder's performance (Sharma 2004), and for more understanding of the role with the support persons around internet marketers, particularly the variations between male and female entrepreneurs (Philbrick and Fitzgerald 2007).
While studies have focused on the girlfriends or wives of man
entrepreneurs, small research has checked out the position female entrepreneurs' spouses perform in entrepreneurship. This is of growing importance as more than recent years the incidence of
women's entrepreneurship continues to climb globally
(Langowitz and Minniti 2007). Researchers asked whether
there are undetectable men concealed from the public view who play a role in
business in the similar ways that females do in male-owned
businesses (Philbrick and Fitzgerald 2007). Just one
empirical study has seen women playing the major
role in the family business (in 11% of the ethnic family
L Fam Econ Iss (2009) 30: 372–385
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